A Taxonomy for Learning , Teaching and Assessing

(A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives


Connection to Expertise Enhancement

The latest revision to Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) uses nouns (what) to describe four knowledge dimensions: factual, conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive and verbs (how) to describe six cognitive process dimensions: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create (graphic below). It is this instructor's observation that contained within this framework, are insights that help frame the discussion of enhancing the expertise of learners.



Structure of Knowledge

Knowledge is considered to be domain specific and dependent on context. Social experience and context play prominent roles in the construction and development of knowledge.

Research has shown that there are often disconnections between the facts, students learn in the classroom and the holistic knowledge reflected in the expert's knowledge of a discipline. Students often do not learn to transfer or apply what they have learned leading to the phenomenon of inert "knowledge".

One of the hallmarks of an expert is that they know more than the facts. Their knowledge is organized (schemas/mental models) and reflects a deep understanding to the subject matter. Experts are able to recognize patterns and often make informed judgments based on partial or incomplete information.

Meta-Cognitive Knowledge

Meta-cognitive knowledge is considered to be empowering to learners because as they develop this knowledge and become aware of cognition in general and their own learning in particular they will act on this awareness. They will use the knowledge as a basis for learning how to learn. Meta-cognitive is broken into three sub-categories: strategic knowledge - general strategies for learning, thinking and problem solving; knowledge about cognitive tasks - includes conditional (when to use a strategy) and contextual knowledge (general social, conventional and cultural norms for using a strategy); Self knowledge - knowledge of strengths and weaknesses in relation to cognition and learning.

Within the self-knowledge subtopic are three social cognitive beliefs that impact motivation:

1. Self-efficacy - learner's judgments of their ability to complete a task.

2. Goals (Attitude toward Learning) - learner's reasons for pursuing a specific task.

3. Value and Interest Beliefs - learner's perceptions of their engagement in the task (do they like it; how important or useful is the task).

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (Abridged edition). New York: Longman.